Eliko Ciklauri-Lammich

 

Article

Title of the article

STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE AND SOME OTHER FORMS AND

MANIFESTATIONS OF VIOLENCE 

Authors

Eliko Ciklauri-Lammich, Max Planck Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, Germany

   

Year

2013

Issue

2

Pages

101-119

           

Abstract

There are different perceptions of the phenomenon of violence. In general, violence is perceived to be an action which causes harm to the others. The legal definition of violence is causing physical, psychological or material (property) harm to the others.

Author conceder this phenomenon from different angles, especially briefly, as the term is used by the Norwegian sociologist, mathematician, and political analyst and one of the founders of the doctrine of peace and conflict Johan Galtung.

In his paper the author considers some methods and programs as a response to racial crimes and racial violence in the EU.

Within the EU there are a variety of examples of methods and programs aimed at preventing crime and racial violence motivated by racial hatred.

Programs to reduce and prevent racial violence can be divided into several categories:

Programs to study the dynamics of attitudes and behaviors:

  • risk (specific young people from disadvantaged environments) ;
  • pupils and students;
  • the general population;
  • profession (police).

Preventive social work associated with the influence of the aggressive youth;

Preventive work with communities to resolve the issues of racial discrimination and racial violence;

Supporting victims of racial violence and compensation schemes;

Increasing the role of the political, professional and social participation for risk groups:

  • in the integration of national minorities in the police and judiciary;
  • assist in the integration of risk groups in socialization and participation in public life and political activity;

Promoting the integration of national minorities - immigrants;

  • by reducing pressure on legal immigrants and asylum seekers;

Support most loyal right-wing activists in the output of extremist organizations.

 

Impact on offenders with the aim of preventing violence behaviors:

  • anti-aggression therapy training;
  • Specialized police investigation focuses on racial or extremist violence;
  • Increase penalties for racist crimes.

Violence has various forms and types - structural, individual, political, etc. The author discussed the main characteristics of the mentioned forms of violence, as well as the factors which lead to the formation and expression of violent behavior both on personal and group levels.

The author also pays attention to the methods and programs aimed to prevent violence.      

Keywords

Violence, conflict, aggressiveness, risk group, prevention

You can access full text version of the article.

You can access full text version of the article.

Bibliography

1.       Albrecht  H.-J. 2002 Terrorismus und kriminologische Forschung - Eine Bestandsaufnahme, in: Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Kriminologie, Vol.1, pp. 5-17.

2.       Brussels, 28.11.2001 COM(2001) 664 final, 2001/0270 (CNS).

3.       Bjorgo T. 1997. Racist and Right-Wing Violence in Scandinavia. Patterns, Perpetrators and Responses, Oslo: TanoAschehoug, p. 17.

4.       Blumstein A., Rosenfeld R. 1998. Assessing Recent Ups and Downs in U.S. Homicide Rates. The National Consortium on Violence Research.

5.       British Crime Survey in Simmons, J., Dockl, T. 2003. Crime in England and Wales 2002/2003. London: Home Office.

6.       Combating Hate Crimes in the OSCE Region: An Overview of Statistics, Legislation, and National Initiatives. Warsaw, 2005; Hall Nate Crime. Willan Publishing, 2005; Jacobs, J., Potter, K. Ibid.; Levin J., Mc Devitt J. Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. NY-L. Plenum Press, 1993.

7.       Europe. Euro barometer Opinion Poll no 47.1. First results presented at the Closing Conference of the European Year Against Racism. Luxembourg, 18 & 19 December 1997.

8.       Eser A., Arnold J. (Hrsg) S82.2 Band 2:Deutschland 2000.662 Seiten.ISBN 3-86113-938-3.

9.       Galtung Verlag J., Strukturelle Gewalt. Reinbek 1975, 10ff

10.    Galtung  J.   Konflikte & Konflktlösungen. Eine Einführung in die Transcend-Methode: Die Transcend.

11.    Graebsch, C. (ed). 2000. Experimente im Strafrecht - Wie genau können Erfolgskontrollen von kriminalpräventiven Maßnahmen sein?  Bremen: Bremer Institut für Kriminalpolitik .

12.    Hawkins D.F. et. al. 1998. Race, Ethnicity, and Serious Juvenile Offending, in: Loeber, R., Farrington, D. (eds) Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. London, New Delhi: Thousand Oaks, pp. 30-46, p. 31.

13.    Hippler J. Wissenschaft & Frieden 2007-1: Terrorismus - Ursachen und Folgen

14.    Jacobs J., Potter K. 1998. Hate Crimes. Criminal Law and Identity Politics. Oxford Un. Press,  p.4.

15.    Joint Action 96/443/JHA of 15 July 1996.

16.    Kinzig J. Die rechtliche Bewältigung von Erscheinungsformen organisierter Kriminalität Duncker und Humblot. Berlin, S.77

17.    Kressel N. 1996. Masse Hate: The Global Rise of Genocide and Terror. Plenum Press, pp. 252-253. IOM Regional Response to the Syria Crisis

18.    Levin, J.,McDevitt, J. (1993) HateCrimes: The Rising Tide ofBigotryandBloodshed, New York:Plenum; Findeisen, H.-V., Kersten, J. 1999.  Der Kick und die Ehre. Vom Sinn jugendlicher Gewalt, München: Kunstmann.

19.    Racism and Xenophobia in Methode und ihre Anwendung 2007. Johan Galtung und Georg Günther Menschenrechte - anders gesehen.suhrkamptaschenbuchwissenschaft  von  Suhrkamp

20.    Tutt N. (Ed.) Violence. L.: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1976, p.613.

21.    Trotha, T. 2002. Über die Zukunft der Gewalt (Aboutthefutureofviolence), in: Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform, Vol. 85, pp. 349-368, p. 360

22.    Van Donselar, J. 2000. Monitor racisme en extreem rechts. Leiden: DerdeRapportage, p. 75.

23.    Foucault M. 2003.  Statehood.  (Idea of State Interest and Its Genesis). Logos. № 4/5.  P. 4-22.

24.  Response to the Syria Crisis

 

 

 

გაზიარება
დაბეჭდვა
© გრიგოლ რობაქიძის სახელობის უნივერსიტეტი   |   ვებ-საიტის შექმნის თარიღი: 2011.05.05   |   განახლებულია: 2016.09.23
თბილისი, ჯანო ბაგრატიონის 6, დავით აღმაშენებლის ხეივანი მე-13 ბათუმი, დავით აღმაშენებლის ქ. 13   |   ტელ:(+995 32) 2384406; (+995 32) 2382706   |   ფაქსი: (+995 32) 2384406   |   ელ-ფოსტა: info@gruni.edu.ge
11267261

Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player.

Get Adobe Flash player

Created By