Eliko Ciklauri-Lammich



Title of the article




Eliko Ciklauri-Lammich, Max Planck Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, Germany










There are different perceptions of the phenomenon of violence. In general, violence is perceived to be an action which causes harm to the others. The legal definition of violence is causing physical, psychological or material (property) harm to the others.

Author conceder this phenomenon from different angles, especially briefly, as the term is used by the Norwegian sociologist, mathematician, and political analyst and one of the founders of the doctrine of peace and conflict Johan Galtung.

In his paper the author considers some methods and programs as a response to racial crimes and racial violence in the EU.

Within the EU there are a variety of examples of methods and programs aimed at preventing crime and racial violence motivated by racial hatred.

Programs to reduce and prevent racial violence can be divided into several categories:

Programs to study the dynamics of attitudes and behaviors:

  • risk (specific young people from disadvantaged environments) ;
  • pupils and students;
  • the general population;
  • profession (police).

Preventive social work associated with the influence of the aggressive youth;

Preventive work with communities to resolve the issues of racial discrimination and racial violence;

Supporting victims of racial violence and compensation schemes;

Increasing the role of the political, professional and social participation for risk groups:

  • in the integration of national minorities in the police and judiciary;
  • assist in the integration of risk groups in socialization and participation in public life and political activity;

Promoting the integration of national minorities - immigrants;

  • by reducing pressure on legal immigrants and asylum seekers;

Support most loyal right-wing activists in the output of extremist organizations.


Impact on offenders with the aim of preventing violence behaviors:

  • anti-aggression therapy training;
  • Specialized police investigation focuses on racial or extremist violence;
  • Increase penalties for racist crimes.

Violence has various forms and types - structural, individual, political, etc. The author discussed the main characteristics of the mentioned forms of violence, as well as the factors which lead to the formation and expression of violent behavior both on personal and group levels.

The author also pays attention to the methods and programs aimed to prevent violence.      


Violence, conflict, aggressiveness, risk group, prevention

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